Introducing Diploma of Investigative and Forensic Accounting: A Case Review in Lebanon


DIFA, Diploma of Investigative and Forensic Accounting, is gaining acceptance thanks to its worth in experiencing corruptive small business techniques and economic theft. Nonetheless, the absence of Forensic Accounting (FA) is however recognized in nations of opaque company practices. On top of that, only couple universities throughout the world are introducing DIFA, so a key work has to be carried out to get rid of the light on the relevance of the diploma in the first put and then offer you it as an official diploma with courses relating to FA whether in universities or monetary institutions. Witnessing A Will | Direct Wills Trusts

The important worry lies in the reality that Forensic Accounting is neither supplied in universities as a diploma, nor at money establishments to detect fraud and make lawful court docket reviews. In many universities of Canada and the United States, the DIFA, is getting provided in the curriculum in order to recruit new learners and give skills established for career progression as a result of enhancement of a specialized niche. 1 of the aims of the Alliance for Excellence in Investigative and Forensic Accounting (Alliance), recognized by the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA), is to build and deal with a expert certification plan. This diploma is created as a detailed software for another person who wishes to follow in this region. CPA, CFA, CIA are illustrations of certificates granted in Lebanon, nonetheless, no diploma is out there associated to Forensic Accounting. Hence, it could be a diploma specified in educational establishments that grant CPA or any other certification similar to auditing or accounting.

Additionally, the importance of adopting FA in the universities’ accounting curriculum is highlighted primarily that its demand from customers for it is escalating gradually. Such adoption has a substantial likely to increase students’ techniques and competencies and could be employed as a veritable source from which fraud could be mitigated. Clean graduates can as properly achieve the DIFA application that provides a wide selection of know-how and abilities to have out money investigations. This variety contains accounting, audit, earnings tax understanding, fraud know-how, understanding of law and policies of proof, an investigative mentality and essential skepticism, comprehension of psychology and commitment, and solid conversation abilities (Stott, 2005).

The method focuses on understanding and techniques that can be best taught and examined in particular person: this sort of as managing a face-to-encounter assembly with a consumer, interviewing abilities, and testifying in courtroom as an expert witness. DIFA supports accountants with the information and capabilities required to bridge the gap in between present quantification versions and ideas and diverse litigation contexts (Stott, 2005).

Based mostly on descriptive statistics of survey final results conducted in Lebanon, becoming a country of opaque business enterprise procedures, to establish the certificates that a forensic accountant ought to have confirmed that:

  • 59.09% of the respondents considered that a forensic accountant need to have a DIFA
  • 31.82% proposed that CPA is the desired certification (Licensed Community Accountant)
  • 20.91% assumed that CFA is the acceptable just one (Chartered Economical Analyst)
  • 10.00% pointed out other forms of certification.
  • 2.12% of the respondents didn’t obtain it needed to have any certification to become a forensic accountant.

Additionally, the relation involving occupation and the respondents’ view about the varieties of certifications that a forensic accountant will have to have was also analyzed. The adhering to breakdown reveals the percentages of respondents who proposed that DIFA is the significant certification centered on occupation profession.

  • 69.10% of the respondents doing the job in banking or insurance
  • 51.60% of the respondents functioning in finance
  • 72.70% of the respondents doing work in education
  • 80% of the respondents working in administration

Having said that, most of the respondents in the accounting area assumed that CPA is the kind of certification that need to be possessed by the forensic accountant with a 77.10%. Men and women doing work in accounting normally tend to pursue a CPA diploma for the assistance it offers in this domain.

In addition to the higher than, the relation involving practical experience and the respondents’ opinion about the types of certification that a forensic accountant need to possess was also researched. The success, based on people who pick DIFA as the desired certificate, have been as follows:

  • most respondents with more than two years’ knowledge thought that DIFA is the essential certification to exercise FA
  • 51.90% of respondents with 2 years’ knowledge and a lot less imagined that DIFA is the essential certification to follow FA
  • 68.80% in between 2 and 6 decades of knowledge imagined that DIFA is the needed certification to practice FA
  • 55.40% of these with fewer than 2 many years or no encounter at all assumed that CPA is the kind of certification that really should be possessed by the forensic accountant.

What’s more, the surveys performed answered the issue whether or not the respondents approve that the DIFA need to be involved in the Lebanese college plans. It demonstrates that:

  • 97.88% of the respondents accepted getting a DIFA in the universities
  • 2.12% of them failed to acknowledge possessing a DIFA in the universities

This is specifically vital because most of the Lebanese people are in the stage of pursuing their educational levels of which the optimum proportion is studying finance.

Supporting the outcomes of the surveys, interviews have been also conducted to know about the style of certificates that a FA need to hold. Most respondents approved that there really should be a certification granted to a forensic accountant. This can be illustrated by what the accounting manager at “Malia Team Multinational Corporation” (with 5 many years of knowledge) stated by declaring: “It need to be taught in universities and the business owners must ask for in their vacancies for an accountant with a certain certifications this kind of as DIFA”

The interviewees’ solutions pressured that it must be launched in all universities and academic institutions foremost to a certification (DIFA), and candidates should have information and a diploma in accounting and auditing. As a single interviewee, a associate at Bureau d’Analyse et de Revision Comptable (BARC) for auditing and taxation (with 33-36 years of experience) places it: “It is a way to avoid corruption this is why I specify that it really should be taught in universities since I strongly agree that it is executed”. Relating interviewees’ suggestions to involve FA in university applications, the head of audit section at “professional auditors” (11 a long time of experience) states: “FA is crucial for cheating methods, it can be launched in universities“.

Interviewees gave diverse responses and solutions about what is essential to carry out Forensic Accounting. 1 interviewee coded that: “There are certain teaching courses such as CPA and there are unique courses for accredited economical forensic and DIFA”(Husband or wife of an audit and taxation firm “Bureau d’Analyse et de Revision Comptable with 33-36 years of knowledge). Consequently interviewees believed that a forensic accountant should really be an expert auditor or has a deep understanding in legal guidelines the variety of certification necessary could be CPA (qualified general public accountant), or have a license in accounting, a certification or a diploma from the LACPA (Lebanese Association of Accredited Community Accounting). For instance the head of the audit office at skilled Auditors indicated that: “Of program you require to have a license in accounting and maybe CPA, for example in our LACPA Lebanese affiliation of certifies community accounting it’s possible you can get this diploma there”.

Other interviewees reported that FA ought to of course have a diploma in accounting moreover the essential working experience to be capable to detect suspicious acts, or have a BA diploma with problems similar to fraud and disclosure, CPA is a in addition, or probably have CFE. A lecturer and former associate at KMPG (with 15 to 17 several years of practical experience) commented on this make a difference by saying: “On the instructional degree the ideal certification would be CFE if anyone desires to be included in that matter he need to go for these kinds of certification specialised in fraud evaluation”.

If everyone seeks to be concerned in this domain he must go for these types of certification specialized in fraud evaluation. Other individuals said that FA presently has CPA or prolonged experience. In addition, a forensic accountant, as an auditor have stated: “need to have investigative competencies and you should really do the right schooling in order to be skilled”. Other interviewees also noted that a forensic accountant need to have investigative skills and endure suitable training in get to be skilled or be a licensed accountant with selected competencies and expertise the certifications wanted are an accounting diploma or a legislation degree since the forensic accountant may possibly have to testify in courts. Or have a official education in fraud certifications could be CPA or CFE.

A different critical assertion coded from the interviewees is that “To come to be a forensic accountant, you have to have to be a accredited accountant with certain skills and encounter, the certifications necessary are accounting degree or regulation degree due to the fact the forensic accountant could testify in courts” (Accounting Manager at Malia Team, with 8 yrs of practical experience).

In other words and phrases, FA accountants should really be accountants in the first location, no specialised certification, but need to be involved in teaching workshops or seminars that help enrich his know-how and expertise, or be an accountant or audit with know-how about relevant regulations. An accounting degree is more than enough but it would be greater if he could acquire classes in investigative accounting if they are readily available in Lebanon. In addition they should have a degree in accounting with a profound practical experience and analytical expertise a certification would be a in addition these as CPA or any other certification in accounting and auditing industry.

Interviewees also noted that the certification that could be held by forensic accountant to observe FA is CPA considering the fact that it is nicely recognised mainly because it is readily available in many educational institutions. Pretty much all respondents conferred a substantial degree of significance for introducing FA in the academic sector in the fiscally corrupted countries.

Just about all respondents considered that FA should really be taught in universities as a program or a graduate key or as scenario research in an audit associated system. Suggestions also integrated that FA could be a specialty in instructional establishments that grant CPA or any other certification linked to auditing or accounting.

Respondents and interviewees also prompt introducing FA via workshops and seminars with the help of authorities and skillful forensic accountants. They also showed acceptance for on line educational applications due to the fact DIFA is not out there in most economically corrupted nations when it is readily available in the United states of america. Thus on line schooling could shorten the distance to folks who can’t go away function and are fascinated to be specialised in forensic accounting.

The contributors also proposed that the personnel and administrators, who are accountable for the financials of the corporation, should really be educated and submitted to an intense instruction to create their techniques to help them to detect fraudulent routines within the business.

In sum, DIFA is designed to present a wide selection of understanding and competencies to have out economic investigations. Staff and administration fraud, theft, embezzlement, and other monetary crimes are expanding, consequently accounting and auditing staff need to have instruction and expertise to identify those crimes. In addition, significant-visibility corporate scandals, such as Enron and WorldCom, exhibit the will need to far better get ready entry-amount accounting graduates and training CPAs in the locations of fraud avoidance, deterrence, detection, investigation, and remediation, Houck et al., (2006). Universities and educational establishments, as will be discussed later on on, participate in a crucial function in introducing DIFA and other FA linked programs, certificates and diplomas. These official certificates can deepen the students’ knowledge and sharpen their skills in Forensic Accounting through trainings less than the supervision of an experienced forensic accountant, taking part in various worldwide conferences, reading relevant journals, books and other literature.

  1. Universities:

Universities play a constituent position in introducing FA because they can control the materials that could be taught to the pupils. Introducing it as a degree, Forensic Accounting could be just one of the majors that exist in universities the study proved that there are some educators who are knowledgeable in the discipline considering the fact that most of them did their doctorate degree in the United states and Uk. Therefore it could be an undergraduate or graduate diploma in the universities.

About the classes, Forensic Accounting could be offered as a system in the college as an alternative of becoming a main it could be involved as portion of accounting, CCE, Legislation or any other main but custom-made for every specialty.

Concerning the circumstance studies, in scenario FA is not thought of as a key or given as a class, it could be highlighted as a result of situation scientific tests in which the college students evaluate lots of intercontinental fraudulent scenarios and the techniques and the logics that have been utilised by forensic accountants to detect and expose the fraud.

  1. Educational Establishments:

Instructional Institutions complete the job of the universities by masking the hole when some of the programs and levels are not granted by the universities they would be out there in instructional institutes or academies. The key program of steps that could be taken by these institutions is granting DIFA which ought to be an formal certification offered to the authorities that want to practice Forensic Accounting in their international locations. Annually or month to month sessions must be introduced as a result of specialised usually means of advertising and marketing. Also, the certification could be incorporation with the government where by certified accountants doing the job in their departments and institutions could be despatched to acquire it from a reliable academic establishment. This certification must be officially regarded and qualified from the ministry of education, finance, and justice. The syndicate have to employ the service of capable forensic accountants able of studying, examining, suggesting insurance policies, and training other people.

Houck, M., Kranacher, M., Morris, B., Riley Jr, R., Robertson, J., & Wells, J. (2006). Forensic accounting as an investigative tool. CPA Journal. Aug2006, Vol. 76 Problem 8, p68-70. 3p,

Taha, N. (2014). Forensic Accounting in Nations around the world of Business Opacity (1. Aufl. ed.). Saarbru�cken: LAP LAMBERT Tutorial Publishing.

Stott, M. (2005). “The Function of Investigative and Forensic Accountants and their Relevance in Preserving and Imposing the Integrity of Canada’s Capital Markets”


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